Treaty of Sugauli and India-Nepal Tensions.

May 24, 2020, The Liberacy:- Treaty of Sugauli, which was signed on the 2nd of December 1815, marks the present-day tension between India and Nepal on the eastern border of the Indian State of Uttarakhand.

Treaty of Sugauli gave rise to the Kalapani dispute between the two neighbouring nations. The disputed issue gain a voice when in November 2019, India released the Map of the entire country after the bifurcation of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories of Ladakh and Jammu & Kashmir.
After the Map was released, Nepal objected to the inclusion of the region of Kalapani into India. Which happens to be administrated by India since the Anglo-Nepalese war of 1814-1816.

Now, in May 2020, Nepal released its official map and showed the region of Kalapani in its administration.

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Treaty of Sugauli.
Treaty of Sugauli.

Treaty of Sugauli & Anglo-Nepalese War:

Treaty of Sugauli was signed on 2nd December 1815 between East India Company and the Kingdom of Nepal. The signatories were Parish Bradshaw for East India Company and Raj Guru Gajaraj Mishra & Chandra Shekhar Upadhaya from the Kingdom of Nepal.
The treaty was ratified on 4th March 181 by then Governor-General of India for British India, David Ochterlony.

Treaty of Sugauli was signed after the Anglo-Nepalese war (1814-1816), also known as the Gurkha War, fought between the Kingdom of Gurkha and East India Company.

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Kalapani Dispute:

Kalapani is a region in India that is part of Pithoragarh district, Uttarakhand. This region is completely representational to the basin of the Kalapani river.
Kalapani river is one of the most important and highest headwaters of river Kali (Mahakali or Sarda), which almost and almost runs through the western Nepal border of India and Nepal south to Uttar Pradesh.

Kalapani is in the Mountainous region at an altitude of 3600-5200 meters.
Valley of Kalapani has Lipulekh pass at the top, which happens to be special for India, as it is the Indian Route to the holy Kailash Manasarovar.

Even in the past, trade has flourished through this route, as it marks the traditional trading route to Tibet, mostly for Bhotiyas of Uttarakhand and Tinkar Valley.

History of the Treaty of Sugauli:

Nepal had a unification under the rule of Prithvi Narayan Shah. The unification ultimately led to the expansionist and imperialist tendencies of the rulers of Nepal.
Under the mindset, Nepal attempted to take the control of Sikkim in its eastern side and basins of Gandaki with regions of Garwhal and Kumaon in the west of Nepal towards India (Presently in Uttarakhand)

This tendency of the rulers of Nepal led them into conflicts with East India Company.

British Governer-General to India, David Ochterlony defeated and evicted the Nepalese from Garhwal and Kumaon including all the river basins, to across the river Kali (Mahakali or Sarda) in the Anglo-Nepalese war (1814-1816). This led to the Treaty of Sugauli and demarcated the western border of Nepal with India.

The border was established across the river Kali. Thus, India evicted Nepalese from the Kalapani region too and included the Kalapani region into British India.

The Defeat of Nepalese in the War led to the ending of the 12-year long occupation of the region by the rulers of Nepal.

This long rule of Nepal in the Indian region is often recalled for its brutality and suppression, as mentioned by the writers in their books.

First, a book titled “Holy Himalayas: The religion, tradition & Scenery of Himalayan Province (Garwhal & Kumaon)” written by Oakley & E Sherman in 1905, and published by London, Oliphant Anderson Ferrier on its page 124-125 describes the brutality of the Nepalese rulers.

The second book that scares the readers about the brutality of Napalese rulers through its pages is titled, “History of Nepal” written by John Whelpton, and published on 17th February 2005. It is a 296 pages long book that mostly talks about the period of the end of Rana family autocracy.

David Ochterlony offered peace terms first, but on the rejection he led another campaign targeting Kathmandu Valley, after which Nepalese capitulated and marked the present-day border of India and Nepal for most of the regions.

Present Day Situation:

The claims of Nepal have been rejected by the Ministery of Foreign affairs of India and have reminded Nepal of how important it is to respect the sovereignty of other countries.
The issue is now linked to the increasing Chinese control of Nepal.

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