Human Genome Project (HGP)

July 12, 2021, The Liberacy:- Human Genome Project (HGP) was undertaken by leading economies of the world, that is, USA, UK, India, France, Germany, China, and Japan, It was a 13-year-long project, starting from 1990 till 2003 and was launched with an aim of determining the sequence of genes those present in Human DNA.

Before we proceed to understand about Human Genome Project (HGP), we must understand,
What is Genome?

A genome is an entire set of DNA present in any organism, which contains all the genetic information of that organism, including its hereditary closeness. It contains both, DNA/RNA and the non-coding sequence
The two kinds of cells, i.e. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes have different ways of storing the genomes.
Prokaryotes store it in a single chromosome, while Eukaryotes store it in one or more chromosomes.

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Based on that location of DNA, in a cell, various terms can be applied for specifically storing complete nuclear DNA set.

The genome of every individual alive is unique, with exception of Twins and the organisms developed through the process of cloning.
Genomes can also be chemically synthesized.

Genome Sequencing:- It is a lab process through which, scientists were able to complete DNA sequences in terms of A-T-G-C.
It has various applications in the field of science, mainly for controlling diseases and for a better understanding of Human Life.

Human Genome Project (HGP)
Human Genome Project (HGP)

This information is available in any organisms Saliva, Hair, Bone Marrow, Epithelial Cells, Seeds, and Leaves.

Human Genome Project (HGP):-

Human Genome Project (HGP) was launched in 1990 and was carried out for 19 years till 2003 and resulted in major success.
There were several Goals of the project.

  • 40,000+ Human Genes Identification.
  • Determination of 3 billion chemical base pair sequences of DNA in Human.
  • Creating a universal database with information generated from the project.
  • Addressing Ethical, Legal and Social issues related to the implementation of project and its practical use.

In this project, a “GenBank” was created which is a data bank based in the USA and having its other branches in Europe and Japan. The data piled up in this bank is freely available on the internet.
Many more complicated programs were created for smooth data analysis from GenBank.

The Basic outcome of the project was that all the nucleotide (99.9%) bases are exactly the same in all people and Chromosome-1 has the most number of genes (2968), whereas, Chromosome-Y has the least number of genes (231).
There are 1.4 million locations where the single-base DNA differences occurred and these are known as Snips.
Dystrophin is the largest known human gene.

New solutions to vector-borne diseases are also an important outcome of HGP.

Human Genome Project- Read and Write (HGP-Read and HGP-Write):-

1) HGP-Read.

HGP-Read created a blueprint of the Human Genome that took 13 years and $2.7 billion.
It was HGP that revealed that there is a possibility of having 20,000+ human genes, that were composed of over 3 billion base pairs.

India did not participate in the Human Genome Project-Read (HGP-Read)

2) HGP-Write.

HGP-Write was launched in 2016, with the active participation of India, to build an artificial human genome from the very start using several bioengineering tools.

Its aim is to address various health-related problems in humans including, human organ transplantation, virus immunity, cancer, diabetes, and other problems, and look out for a permanent solution or creating a complete organ in labs.

The results from the Human Genome Project (HGP) is expected to answer many questions related to Human and its closest relatives, understanding basic cellular process, narrow down to an individual gene for understanding potential disease and cure, understand the huge amount of genetic information available in the world, etc.

Despite all the success of the project, it is yet to stand clear on Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues arising as the project proceeds.

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