Vienna Convention called for the conservation of the Ozone Layer. It came into force in 1983 and was ratified universally in 2009.
Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol are the only treaties with universal ratification in the history of the United Nations.
On 22nd March 1985, 28 countries originally signed the convention.
Facts on Vienna Convention.
This Convention established a general procedure and conduct on how treaties should be drafted and defined. It also established general conduct for the diplomatic framework and immunity to work.
Montreal Protocol was brought in, in 1987, to reduce the Ozone Depleting Depleting Substances (ODSs) and to strengthen the goals of the Vienna Convention.
16th September is known as the “Ozone Day” proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly. It was the day when Montreal Protocol was made open for signatures and the Convention was ratified.
Kigali Amendment (also known as Kigali Agreement), was the 8th amendment made to the Montreal Protocol. It aimed to reduce the usage and manufacturing of HFCs (Hydrofluorocarbons) by about 80% to 85% with a deadline of 2045.
Convention has two funds established,
- Trust Fund for Vienna Convention.
- Trust Fund for Research and Systematic Observations.
“Ozone Research Managers” was established as an expert specialized forum in research related to Ozone modifications.
There are 198 members of the convention.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) assists in the convention at the secretarial level.
COP for Vienna Convention is held every three years.
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